In this case, the legal framework is defined by two laws and an Executive Decree, Ley 51 del 22 de Julio del 2008, la Ley 82 del 9 de Noviembre de 2012 and Decreto Ejecutivo 684 del 18 de Octubre del 2013. According to these regulations, we are dealing with e-signature and qualified electronic signature.
The e-signature is defined as: A set of sounds, symbols or data linked to an electronic document, which has been adopted or used by a person with the intention of identifying himself, accepting or adhering to the content of an electronic document.
The qualified e-signature is defined as: electronic signature that meets electronic signature requirements and is supported by a qualified digital certificate.
Panamanian law is somewhat different from other Latin American laws, since the validity of an electronic signature depends on the importance of the document. Thus, the e-signature is generally accepted, however, in cases where the signature is required under oath, a qualified electronic signature would be required.